U.S. interest in buying Cuba had begun long before 1898. After the Ten Years` War, U.S. sugar interests bought large tracts of land from Cuba. Changes to the U.S. sugar tariff in favor of locally grown beet sugar helped revive revolutionary zeal in 1895. At the time, the United States had invested more than $50 million in Cuba, and annual trade, mainly in sugar, was worth twice as much. Enthusiasm for war had increased in the United States, despite President Grover Cleveland`s proclamation of neutrality on June 12, 1895. But the mood to enter the conflict grew in the United States when General Valeriano Weyler began to implement a policy of reconcentration that moved the population to central locations guarded by Spanish troops and, in February 1896, placed the entire country under martial law. The 7. President Cleveland repented in December, saying the United States could intervene if Spain did not end the crisis in Cuba. President William McKinley, who was inaugurated on March 4, 1897, was even more concerned about the involvement, especially after the New York Journal published a copy of a letter from Spanish Foreign Minister Enrique Dupuy de Lôme on February 9, 1898, criticizing the American president.
Events moved quickly after the explosion aboard the USS Maine on February 15. On March 9, Congress passed a bill that provides fifty million dollars to strengthen the military force. On March 28, the U.S. Court of Naval Investigation found that a mine had detonated Maine. On April 21, President McKinley ordered a blockade of Cuba, and four days later, the United States declared war. On the 25th. In April 1898, the United States declared war on Spain after the sinking of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana on February 15, 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898, which resulted in spain losing control over the remnants of its overseas empire – Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands, Guam and other islands.
In the 1880s and 1890s, Puerto Ricans developed many different political parties, some of which sought independence from the island, while others, who, like their Cuban counterparts, had their headquarters in New York, preferred to ally with the United States. Spain proclaimed Puerto Rico`s autonomy on November 25, 1897, although the news did not reach the island until January 1898 and a new government was installed on February 12, 1898. After their declaration of war on Spain on September 25. In April 1898, the United States added the Plate Amendment, stating that it would not seek to exercise its hegemony over Cuba. Two days later, Commodore George Dewey left Hong Kong with Emilio Aguinaldo on board. Fighting began in the Philippines during the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, where Commodore George Dewey reportedly exclaimed, “You can fire when you`re ready, Gridley,” and the Spanish fleet under the command of Rear Admiral Patricio Montojo was destroyed. However, with Dewey not having enough men to capture Manila, Aguinaldo`s guerrillas maintained their operations until the arrival of 15,000 U.S. troops at the end of July. On the way, the cruiser Charleston stopped in Guam and accepted her surrender from her Spanish governor, who did not know that his country was at war. Although a peace protocol was drawn up by the two warring parties on 12 September. Commodore Dewey and Maj. Gen.
Wesley Merritt, the chief of the armed forces, attacked Manila the next day, unaware that peace had been declared. The Philippines also began to become agitated by Spanish rule. José Rizal, a member of a wealthy mestizo family, was annoyed that his superior mobility was limited by the Spanish insistence on promoting only “purebred” Spaniards. He began his political career in 1882 at the University of Madrid, where he became the leader of the Filipino students there. Over the next ten years, he traveled throughout Europe and wrote several novels considered seditious by the Philippine and ecclesiastical authorities. In 1892, he returned to Manila and founded the Liga Filipina, a political group dedicated to peaceful change. He was soon exiled to Mindanao. During his absence, Andrés bonifacio founded Katipunan, which was dedicated to the violent overthrow of Spanish rule. On August 26, 1896, after Bonifacio learned that the Katipunan had been betrayed, he launched the Grito of Balintawak, a call for the Revolt of the Filipinos. Bonifacio was replaced as leader of the Philippine Revolution by Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, who had his predecessor arrested and executed on May 10, 1897. Aguinaldo negotiated a deal with the Spaniards, who banned him to Hong Kong with 400,000 pesos, with which he then bought weapons to resume fighting. In late April, Andrew Summers Rowan contacted Cuban General Calixto García, who provided him with maps, intelligence, and a core of rebel officers to coordinate U.S.
efforts on the island. The American North Atlantic Squadron left Key West on 22 September. The Spanish fleet under the command of Admiral Pascual Cervera had left Cadiz and marched on Santiago after slipping American ships under the command of William T. Sampson and Winfield Scott Schley. They arrived in Cuba at the end of May. After the liberation of mainland Latin America from Spain, Cuba was the first to begin its own struggle for independence. From 1868 to 1878, Cubans, personified by guerrillas known as Mambises, fought for Spain`s autonomy. This war ended with a treaty that was never implemented. In the 1890s, Cubans began to agitate again for their liberation from Spain. The moral leader of this struggle was José Martí, known as “El Apóstol”, who founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in the United States on January 5, 1892. After the Grito de Baire, the call to arms of February 24, 1895, Martí returned to Cuba and took part in the first weeks of armed struggle when he was killed on May 19, 1895.
American troops attacked the heights of San Juan on July 1, 1898. Disembarked soldiers, including the Ninth and Tenth African-American Cavalry and the Rough Riders under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, opposed Kettle Hill, while forces led by Brigadier General Jacob Kent attacked San Juan Hill and pushed Spanish troops further inland. while causing 1,700 casualties. As the American commanders decided on another course of action, Admiral Cervera left the port only to be defeated by Schley. On July 16, the Spanish accepted the unconditional surrender of the 23,500 soldiers around the city. A few days later, Major General Nelson Miles sailed from Guantánamo to Puerto Rico. His troops landed near Ponce and marched towards San Juan with virtually no resistance. Beginning in 1492, Spain became the first European nation to sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean, exploring and colonizing the Native American nations of the Western Hemisphere. In its greatest extent, the empire resulting from this exploration stretched from Virginia on the east coast of the United States in the south to Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America without Brazil and west to California and Alaska.
On the other side of the Pacific, it included the Philippines and other island groups. By 1825, much of this empire had fallen into other hands, and that year Spain recognized the independence of its possessions in what is now the United States (then under Mexican control) and south to the tip of South America. The only remaining remnants of the empire in the Western Hemisphere were Cuba and Puerto Rico and across the Pacific in the Philippines, as well as the Caroline, Marshall and Mariana Islands (including Guam) in Micronesia. The war began for the United States in Cuba in June, when Marines captured Guantánamo Bay and landed 17,000 soldiers in Siboney and Daiquirí east of Santiago de Cuba, the island`s second largest city. At that time, the Spanish troops stationed on the island included 150,000 regular soldiers and 40,000 irregulars and volunteers, while the rebels in Cuba numbered 50,000. The total strength of the U.S. Army at that time was 26,000 men, which necessitated the passage of the April 22 Mobilization Act, which allowed for an army initially of 125,000 volunteers (later increased to 200,000) and a regular army of 65,000. On the 22nd.
In June, U.S. troops landed in Daiquiri, where they were joined by Calixto García and about 5,000 revolutionaries. Representatives of Spain and the United States signed a peace treaty in Paris on December 10, 1898, which established Cuba`s independence, ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and allowed the victorious power to purchase the Philippine islands from Spain for $20 million. The war had cost the United States $250 million and 3,000 lives, 90 percent of which had died from infectious diseases. .